Livestock body composition account for 60 to 70% of water to maintain body fluids and proper iron balance. Lactating cows tends to loose a lot of water daily to satisfy daily production which can go up to 48 liters a day in their peak. Water consumption is driven by 2 key factors: milk production and the environment temperature. In the region where we operate (GCC), it is customary in large farms to have cooling mechanism for cows through a combination of humidifiers and shadowed spaces in order to reduce the water consumption which is an ESG target for all corporates.
Livestock also need water with low concentration of mineral. Studies showed that high salinity water tend to decrease the cows milk yield especially during hot summer. This remains a key focus for large farms in the middle east due to water scarcity.
Last, dry matter intake and water consumption are directly related. The less an animal drink, the less feed it will consume. This would lead to reduced weight gains and a drop in the milk fat component.